PLASTIC POLLUTION

We’re surrounded by plastic. Think about every piece you touch in a single day: grocery bags, food containers, coffee cup lids, drink bottles, straws for juice boxes — the list goes on and on. Plastic may be convenient, but its success carries a steep price.

But where does all this plastic go? We ship some of it overseas to be recycled. Quite a bit ends up in landfills. And more than you can imagine ends up on the loose as plastic pollution, eventually making its way into our waterways.

Plastic never goes away. And it’s increasingly finding its way into our oceans and onto our beaches. In the Los Angeles area alone, 10 metric tons of plastic fragments — like grocery bags, straws and soda bottles — are carried into the Pacific Ocean every day.

Preposterous Facts About Plastic Pollution:

  • Over the last ten years we have produced more plastic than during the whole of the last century.
  • 50 percent of the plastic we use, we use just once and throw away.
  • We currently recover only five percent of the plastics we produce.
  • The average American throws away approximately 185 pounds of plastic per year.
  • Plastic accounts for around 10 percent of the total waste we generate.
  • The production of plastic uses around eight percent of the world’s oil production (bioplastics are not a good solution as they require food source crops).
  • Americans throw away 35 billion plastic water bottles every year (source: Brita)
  • Plastic in the ocean breaks down into such small segments that pieces of plastic from a one liter bottle could end up on every mile of beach throughout the world.
  • Annually approximately 500 billion plastic bags are used worldwide. More than one million bags are used every minute.
  • 46 percent of plastics float (EPA 2006) and it can drift for years before eventually concentrating in the ocean gyres.
  • It takes 500-1,000 years for plastic to degrade.
  • Billions of pounds of plastic can be found in swirling convergences in the oceans making up about 40 percent of the world’s ocean surfaces. 80 percent of pollution enters the ocean from the land.
  • The Great Pacific Garbage Patch is located in the North Pacific Gyre off the coast of California and is the largest ocean garbage site in the world. This floating mass of plastic is twice the size of Texas, with plastic pieces outnumbering sea life six to one.
  • Plastic constitutes approximately 90 percent of all trash floating on the ocean’s surface, with 46,000 pieces of plastic per square mile.
  • Plastic chemicals can be absorbed by the body—93 percent of Americans age six or older test positive for BPA (a plastic chemical).
  • Some of these compounds found in plastic have been found to alter hormones or have other potential human health effects.

Plastics pollution has a direct and deadly effect on wildlife. Thousands of seabirds and sea turtles, seals and other marine mammals are killed each year after ingesting plastic or getting entangled in it. Endangered wildlife like Hawaiian monk seals and Pacific loggerhead sea turtles are among nearly 300 species that eat and get caught in plastic litter. And all this plastic pollution is not only a problem for the earth, it’s bad for our health.

Most ocean pollution starts out on land and is carried by wind and rain to the sea. Once in the water, there is a near-continuous accumulation of waste. Plastic is so durable that the EPA reports “every bit of plastic ever made still exists.”

Plastic is an epidemic.

 

Greenhouse gases + Global Warming = Climate Change

There’s a delicate balancing act occurring every day all across the Earth, involving the radiation the planet receives from space and the radiation that’s reflected back out to space.
While other planets in Earth’s solar system are either scorching hot or bitterly cold, Earth’s surface has relatively mild, stable temperatures. Earth enjoys these temperatures because of its atmosphere, which is the thin layer of gases that cloak and protect the planet.

However, 97 percent of climate scientists agree that humans have changed Earth’s atmosphere in dramatic ways over the past two centuries, resulting in global warming.

 

Greenhouse Gases
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the greenhouse gases. The exchange of incoming and outgoing radiation that warms the Earth is often referred to as the greenhouse effect because a greenhouse works in much the same way.

Incoming UV radiation easily passes through the glass walls of a greenhouse and is absorbed by the plants and hard surfaces inside. Weaker IR radiation, however, has difficulty passing through the glass walls and is trapped inside, thus warming the greenhouse. This effect lets tropical plants thrive inside a greenhouse, even during a cold winter.

 

Greenhouse Effect
Atmospheric scientists first used the term ‘greenhouse effect’ in the early 1800s. At that time, it was used to describe the naturally occurring functions of trace gases in the atmosphere and did not have any negative connotations. It was not until the mid-1950s that the term greenhouse effect was coupled with concern over climate change. And in recent decades, we often hear about the greenhouse effect in somewhat negative terms. The negative concerns are related to the possible impacts of an enhanced greenhouse effect. It is important to remember that without the greenhouse effect, life on earth as we know it would not be possible.

 

Greenhouse gases and global warming
Gas molecules that absorb thermal infrared radiation, and are in significant enough quantity, can force the climate system. These type of gas molecules are called greenhouse gases,. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases act like a blanket, absorbing IR radiation and preventing it from escaping into outer space.

The greenhouse effect, combined with increasing levels of greenhouse gases and the resulting global warming, is expected to have profound implications, according to the near-universal consensus of scientists.
If global warming continues unchecked, it will cause significant climate change, a rise in sea levels, increasing ocean acidification, extreme weather events and other severe natural and societal impacts.

DISPOSING OF COOKING OIL: Safe Options.

 

Whether you’re deep-frying a turkey, browning some ground beef or frying some bacon, you end up with a lot of used oil to contend with. Some of the best things are made with cooking oil. However, though it is an essential part of making some of the most delicious food, it can be a little tricky to dispose of.One thing you absolutely cannot do is pour it down the drain.

Follow these steps to properly dispose of your cooking oil.

  1. Let the pan cool. You should always let the oil cool down before removing it from whatever cooking device you were using.
  1. Select the right container for the oil. Plastic containers work better than glass jars in that, as with any plastic vs. glass argument, glass will break if dropped.
  1. Strain the oil while pouring it into the container. You do not have to do this if you are not planning on reusing or donating your cooking oil.
  1. Freeze your cooking oil. After you have put your cooking oil into a container, you can freeze it, easier to dispose of cooking oil after its solid.
  1. Reuse the cooking oil for another meal. Oil can be used for frying several times over, as long as you filter it between uses.
  1. Consider making an oil lamp.
  1. Use the oil for shaving. Avoid the chemicals in commercial shaving creams and lotions that may dry and irritate your skin by using cooking oil instead.
  1. Check if there is a local recycling center that will take the oil off your hands.
  1. Donate your cooking oil, a lot of cities are now asking their residents to donate their used cooking oil.
  1. Use it to make soap.

BALLOONS MAKE PEOPLE HAPPY BUT THEY ALSO KILL WILDLIFE

Balloons
make people happy, but they also kill wildlife.

For years, balloon releases have been used to celebrate events or honor the memory of someone lost. Schools release them during football games, they’re sent floating into the air at running events, and released by crowds of people at weddings, funerals, and memorials.

And while those who organize and participate in balloon releases have the best of intentions, what they fail to consider is what happens when those balloons eventually land.

Beach litter surveys have shown the amount of balloons and balloon pieces found on the beach have tripled in the past 10 years.

While some balloons burst, others just gradually deflate. But they all fall back down to Earth where they can wreak havoc on wildlife on land, sea, and air.

Balloons can take years to break down, even the so-called “biodegradable” latex ones. This gives plenty of time for it to travel and encounter many animals that may mistake it for a tasty snack, or accidentally get entangled in it.These balloons just turn into a gummy chunk of gut clogging material.

Sea turtles are particularly at risk because they naturally prey on jellies, which balloons can easily be mistaken for, even with human eyes.

Balloons are great at birthdays, weddings, graduations and more, but once they get loose, balloons can pose a threat to many animals.

Dolphins, whales, turtles, and many other marine species, as well as terrestrial animals such as cows, dogs, sheep, tortoises, birds and other animals have all been hurt or killed by balloons. The animal is usually killed from the balloon blocking its digestive tract, leaving them unable to take in any more nutrients. It slowly starves to death.

In addition, many animals can become entangledentangled in the balloon and its ribbon making the animal unable to move or eat.

Balloons kill wildlife

This happens because birds and mammals love the texture and look of these products. Biologists think of balloons as having the same look and feel (as they eat them) as jellyfish, slugs, clams, flowers, mushrooms or other food items found in nature.

What You Can 

  • NOT release their balloons into the air.
  • Secure balloons with a weight.
  • Deflate balloon after the event or use.

This addresses the problem. We need to prevent additional balloons from entering the environment. We do not need to pass any additional laws banning the product or use of balloons. The total balloon industry represents more than 10,000 jobs nationwide.

There is no reason to put any of these people out of work and deprive others of the joy that balloons do bring to children and adults alike.

If you know of someone planning a balloon release, please urge them to consider so many other symbolic acts that don’t involve the use of balloons.

 

 

THE OZONE LAYER DEPLETION

 

The Ozone layer is a deep blanket in the stratosphere made up of comparatively high concentration of the ozone. As a result of its chemical composition, ozone is regarded as a special type of oxygen as it contains three oxygen molecules (O3) as opposed to the usual two oxygen molecules (O2).

 

Causes of Ozone Layer Depletion

There have been several concerns about ozone depletion. The problems and causes associated with ozone depletion arise from human activities. Unlike pollution which has several causes, there is one specific chemical compound that is responsible for the breakdown of the ozone layer.

These chemical compounds are present in many industrial manufactured products and aerosols. Nonetheless, since the discovery of ozone depletion, the Montreal Protocol was established to regulate the manufacture and use of these chemical compounds.

 

Effects of Ozone Layer Depletion

Effect on health of humans

With depletion in ozone’s layer, we humans are more prone to UV rays that reaches the Earth’s surface. If the ozone layer is depleted, it means humans will be overly exposed to strong UV light. Overexposure to strong UV light causes skin cancer, cataracts, sunburns, weakening of immune system and quick aging.

Effect on plants

Many crops species are vulnerable to strong UV light and overexposure may well lead to minimal growth, photosynthesis and flowering. Some of the crop species vulnerable to UV light include barley, wheat, corn, oats, rice, broccoli, tomatoes, cauliflower just to name a few. Forests equally bear the brunt of ozone depletion. Plants become another casualty by radiation effects of UV rays. The physiological and developmental processes of plants are also severely affected apart from the growth

Effect on marine ecosystems.

UV rays also have adverse effect on the marine ecosystems. It badly affects the planktons that form the foundation of aquatic food webs.

Effect on biogeochemical cycles.

Increases in UV radiation alters both sources and sinks of greenhouse gasses in the biosphere e.g.: e.g., carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, carbonyl sulfide, ozone, and possibly other gases

 

Solutions to Ozone Layer Depletion

Depletion to ozone layer depletion does not affect a region or a country. In fact whole world is vulnerable to its after affects. The increase in the levels of UV rays lead to high rate of skin cancer and eye related problems. Lets have a look at some of the solutions to ozone layer depletion.

  1. Avoid products that results in ozone depletion.
  2. Advocate for ozone protection.
  3. Desist from using pesticides.
  4. Discourage driving of private vehicles.
  5. Utilize environmentally friendly cleaning products.
  6. Prohibit the use of harmful nitrous oxide.

Acid TWITTER

 

Acid rain is made up of water droplets that are unusually acidic because of atmospheric pollution, most notably the excessive amounts of sulfur and nitrogen released by cars and industrial processes. It is easily defined as rain, fog, sleet or snow that has been made acidic by pollutants in the air as a result of fossil fuel and industrial combustions that mostly emits Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)Acidity is determined on the basis of the pH level of the water droplets.

Acid rain is also called acid deposition because this term includes other forms of acidic precipitation such as snow.

Today, acid deposition is present in the northeastern United States, southeastern Canada, and much of Europe including portions of Sweden, Norway, and Germany.

In addition, parts of South Asia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, and Southern India are all in danger of being impacted by acid deposition in the future.

 

Causes and Effects of Acid Rain

Human activities leading to chemical gas emissions such as sulfur and nitrogen are the primary contributors to acid rain. The activities include air pollution sources emitting sulfur and nitrogen gases like factories, power generations facilities, and automobiles. In particular, use of coal for electrical power generation is the biggest contributor to gaseous emissions leading to acid rain.

The existing winds blow these acidic compounds over large areas across borders and they fall back to the ground in the form of acid rain or other forms of precipitation. Upon reaching the earth, it flows across the surface, absorbs into the soil and enters into lakes and rivers and finally gets mixed up with sea water.

As this acidic liquid flows into larger bodies of water. It is estimated that around 50,000 lakes in the United States and Canada have a pH below normal (about 5.3 for water). Several hundred of these have a pH too low to support any aquatic life.

Aside from aquatic bodies, acid deposition can significantly impact forests.

The major natural causal agent for acid rain is volcanic emissions. Volcanoes emit acid producing gases to create higher than normal amounts of acid rain or any other form of precipitation such as fog and snow to an extent of affecting vegetation cover and health of residents within the surrounding.

Damage to forests by acid rain is seen all over the world, but the most advanced cases are in Eastern Europe. It’s estimated that in Germany and Poland, half of the forests are damaged, while 30% in Switzerland have been affected.

Finally, acid deposition also has an impact on architecture and art because of its ability to corrode certain materials. As acid lands on buildings (especially those constructed with limestone) it reacts with minerals in the stones sometimes causing them to disintegrate and wash away. Acid deposition can also cause concrete to deteriorate, and it can corrode modern buildings, cars, railroad tracks, airplanes, steel bridges, and pipes above and below ground.

 

Climate Change and Society

Climate change is already affecting the planet and society and will continue to do so for generations to come. The physical and chemical changes of human activities are being felt in natural ecosystems on land and at sea, on farms and ranches, and in cities and suburbs, but the changes are not happening uniformly.

Climate change poses a fundamental threat to the places, species and people’s livelihoods to adequately address this crisis we must urgently reduce carbon pollution and prepare for the consequences of global warming. Sea levels are rising and oceans are becoming warmer.

Longer, more intense droughts threaten crops, wildlife and freshwater supplies. From polar bears in the Arctic to marine turtles off the coast of Africa, our planet’s diversity of life is at risk from the changing climate.

The increase in global temperature is significantly altering our planet’s climate, resulting in more extreme and unpredictable weather. Scientists in the United States and the world have reached an overwhelming consensus that climate change is real and caused primarily by human activity.

Climate change poses a fundamental threat to the places, species and people’s livelihoods.

Climate plays an important role in the global distribution of freshwater resources. Changing precipitation patterns and temperature conditions will alter the distribution and availability of freshwater resources, reducing reliable access to water for many people and their crops. Winter snowpack and mountain glaciers that provide water for human use are declining as a result of global warming.

Researchers work to understand how these changes to the weather affect coastal populations, not to mention shipping, fishing, and other industries in those waters.

Ecosystems on land and in the ocean have been and will continue to be disturbed by climate change. Animals, plants, bacteria, and viruses will migrate to new areas with favorable climate conditions. Infectious diseases and certain species will be able to invade areas that they did not previously inhabit.

Climate change is already affecting the planet and society and will continue to do so for generations to come.

Many researchers work to develop detailed predictions about the effects of climate change in local areas, and to make those predictions available to the general public. Predicting the long-term consequences is complicated in part because choices we make as individuals and as a society will change those outcomes. By reducing the amount of carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere, the effects will be less severe than if we choose to increase the amounts of those gases. This is one reason it’s so important to learn all we can about climate change: to make informed choices about the climate, and prepare for the results of those choices.

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Overall recycling rates are increasing, but so is our population. More goods are being produced and more natural resources are being used, and many are wasted when we throw things away.

We’ve compiled some of the most astonishing recycling facts; some are alarming, and all of them should make us realise that we need to be more aware of what we are throwing away, if we are going to preserve the planet and its natural resources for future generations.
Each year the United States uses 30 billion plastic and 10 billion paper grocery bags, requiring approximately 14 million trees and 12 million barrels of oil.

Each high quality reusable bag you use has the potential to eliminate an average of 1,000 plastic bags over its lifetime.The bag will pay for itself if your grocery store offers a discount per bag for bringing your own bags.

Introduced just over 25 years ago, the ugly truth about our plastic bag addiction is that society’s consumption rate is now estimated at well over 500,000,000,000 (that’s 500 billion) plastic bags annually, or almost 1 million per minute. In a landfill, these single-use bags will take up to 1,000 years to degrade.

Each high quality reusable bag you use has the potential to eliminate an average of 1,000 plastic bags over its lifetime

Plastic bags cause over 100,000 sea turtle and other marine animal deaths every year when animals mistake them for food.

The average family accumulates 60 plastic bags in only four trips to the grocery store

Each high quality reusable bag you use has the potential to eliminate an average of 1,000 plastic bags over its lifetime. The bag will pay for itself if your grocery store offers a discount per bag for bringing your own bags.

Annual cost to U.S. retailers alone is estimated at $4 billion. When retailers give away free bags, their costs are passed on to consumers in the form of higher prices.

Air Pollution Kellygreenclub


Pollution is now a common place term, that our ears are attuned to. By definition, pollution refers to any matter that is “out of place”. In other words, it is what happens when toxins, contaminants, and other harmful products are introduced into an environment, disrupting its normal patterns and functions.

Air pollution it occurs when any harmful gases, dust, smoke enters into the atmosphere and makes it difficult for plants, animals and humans to survive as the air becomes dirty, and cause damage to the natural environment.

Whereas some causes of pollution are entirely natural – being the result of sudden changes in temperature, seasonal changes, or regular cycles – others are the result of human impact (i.e. anthropogenic, or man-made).

The Ozone layer considered crucial for the existence of the ecosystems on the planet is depleting due to increased pollution. Global warming, a direct result of the increased imbalance of gases in the atmosphere has come to be known as the biggest threat and challenge that the contemporary world has to overcome in a bid for survival.

Causes of Pollutants

Natural Causes
Natural forms of pollution are those that result from naturally-occurring phenomena. This means they are caused by periodic activities that are not man-made or the result of human activity. What’s more, these sources of pollution are subject to natural cycles, being more common under certain conditions and less common under others.

Dust and Wildfires:
In large areas of open land that have little to no vegetation, and are particularly dry due to a lack of precipitation, wind can naturally create dust storms. This particulate matter, when added to the air, can have a natural warming effect and can also be a health hazard for living creatures. Particulate matter, when scattered into regions that have natural vegetation, can also be a natural impediment to photosynthesis.

Wildfires are a natural occurrence in wooded areas when prolonged dry periods occur, generally as a result of season changes and a lack of precipitation. The smoke and carbon monoxide caused by these fires contribute to carbon levels in the atmosphere, which allows for greater warming by causing a Greenhouse Effect.

Animal and Vegetation:
Animal digestion (particularly by cattle) is another cause of natural air pollution, leading to the release of methane, another greenhouse gas.

Volcanic Activity:
Volcanic eruptions are a major source of natural air pollution. When an eruption occurs, it produces tremendous amounts of sulfuric, chlorine, and ash products, which are released into the atmosphere and can be picked up by winds to be dispersed over large areas.

Fossil-Fuel Emissions:
The combustion of fossil fuels like coal, petroleum and other factory combustibles is a major cause of air pollution. These are generally used in power plants, manufacturing facilities (factories) and waste incinerators, as well as furnaces and other types of fuel-burning heating devices.

Agriculture and Animal Husbandry:
Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture (aka. the cultivation of crops and livestock) is created by a combination of factors, one is the production of methane by cattle. Another cause is deforestation, where the need for pastureland and growing fields requires the removal of trees that would otherwise sequester carbon and clean the air.

Waste:
Landfills are also known to generate methane, which is not only a major greenhouse gas, but also an asphyxiant and highly flammable and potentially hazardous if a landfills grow unchecked. Population growth and urbanization have a proportional relationship with the production of waste, which in turn leads to greater demand for dumping grounds that are far removed from urban environments. These locations thus became a significant source of methane production.

Effects of Air pollution

1. Respiratory and heart problems: The effects of Air pollution create several respiratory and heart conditions along with Cancer, among other threats to the body.

2. Global warming: With increased temperatures world wide, increase in sea levels and melting of ice from colder regions and icebergs, displacement and loss of habitat have already signaled an impending disaster if actions for preservation and normalization aren’t undertaken soon.

3. Acid Rain: Harmful gases like nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are released into the atmosphere during the burning of fossil fuels. When it rains, the water droplets combines with these air pollutants, becomes acidic and then falls on the ground in the form of acid rain. Acid rain can cause great damage to human, animals and crops.

4. Eutrophication: Eutrophication is a condition where high amount of nitrogen present in some pollutants gets developed on sea’s surface and turns itself into algae and and adversely affect fish, plants and animal species. The green colored algae that is present on lakes and ponds is due to presence of this chemical only.

5. Effect on Wildlife: Just like humans, animals also face some devastating affects of air pollution. Toxic chemicals present in the air can force wildlife species to move to new place and change their habitat. The toxic pollutants deposit over the surface of the water and can also affect sea animal

6. Depletion of Ozone layer: Ozone exists in earth’s stratosphere and is responsible for protecting humans from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. Earth’s ozone layer is depleting due to the presence of chlorofluorocarbons, hydro chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere. As ozone layer will go thin, it will emit harmful rays back on earth and can cause skin and eye related problems. UV rays also have the capability to affect crops.

Solutions for Air Pollution

1. Use public mode of transportation: Encourage people to use more and more public modes of transportation to reduce pollution. y.

2. Conserve energy: Switch off fans and lights when you are going out. You can save the environment from degradation by reducing the amount of fossil fuels to be burned.

3. Understand the concept of Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Do not throw away items that are of no use to you. In-fact reuse them for some other purpose.

4. Use energy efficient devices: CFL lights consume less electricity as against their counterparts. They live longer, consume less electricity, lower electricity bills and also help you to reduce pollution by consuming less energy.

Several attempts are being made world wide on a personal, industrial and governmental levels to curb the intensity at which Air Pollution is rising and regain a balance as far as the proportions of the foundation gases are concerned. This is a direct attempt at slacking Global warming.

Landfill_KellyGreenClub

Various sources say that the average American generates nearly 5lbs of garbage a day! That’s a lot of garbage.

If you’re not currently into recycling then chances are your garbage is going to be in a landfill for a very very long time.

The trip for trash starts in your trash can at home, goes through local waste haulers, sometimes through the county, and a landfill.

Trash put in a landfill will stay there for a very long time. Inside a landfill, there is little oxygen and little moisture. Under these conditions, trash does not break down so fast.

The principal behind modern sanitary landfills is to bury trash in the most contained way possible. Trash is delivered by trucks to what is called the “open cell”. This is the only part of the landfill that has trash visible at the surface.

After being delivered, the trash is driven over by heavy machines called compactors. A lot of materials contain air, and the compactors squeeze out as much air as possible. After the cell is full, it is covered permanently with a layer of material, usually dirt or something similar.

At that point there is a new cell opened until it is filled.

Modern landfills are lined with material to keep contaminants inside the landfill from leaking out. They also have landfill gas collectors to capture most of the methane that the materials inside of the landfill make.

Landfills are not designed to break down trash, merely to bury it.

In fact, when old landfills have been excavated or sampled, 40-year-old newspapers have been found with easily readable print.

When a landfill closes, the site, especially the groundwater, must be monitored and maintained for up to 30 years!

householdwasteDid you know that the average person in the United States generates around 4.5 pounds of waste every single day? Multiply that by around 300 million, and you can see why garbage has become a serious problem in this country. This is just one reason why recycling is so important.

Recycling not only saves valuable space in our landfills, but it also helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions

All materials should be clean, to avoid contamination – wash out bottles, cans, yogurt pots etc, before recycling.

Items that can be recycling

  • Glass bottles and jars – recycle lids/caps separately
  • Paper (newspapers, magazines, telephone books, office paper, junk mail, comics and light cardboard)
  • Laminated or waxed papers like paper cups.
  • Drinks cartons (for milk, juice etc.)
  • Aluminum (soft drink and beer cans, foil)
  • Plastic bottles and cartons.
  • Food tins (fruit, vegetables, pet food)
  • Plastic bottle tops, metal and aluminum lids
  • Textiles (clean clothes, bed linen, towels, coats and jackets)
  • White goods (washing machines, cookers, dryers, dishwashers, fridges)
  • Batteries (also collected in shops and supermarkets)
  • Books (Donate or sell any books that you no longer read. . “Outdated” often means “vintage,” to savvy book collectors.)
  • Shredded Paper.
  • Disposable Plats and Cups ( Most plastic cups and plates can go in the recycle bin, and you can compost paper plates.)
  • CD and DVD Cases.
  • Cardboar ( cardboard boxes, including cereal boxes, pizza boxes, cracker boxes, and any other type of paper packaging).

Items that can´t be accepted for recycling

  • Crystal glass, Pyrex, television tubes, opal glass, (that is, alcohol bottles where a large amount of foil is glued to he bottle) and car windscreens.
  • Porcelain, pottery, stones and ceramic tiles.
  • Carpets and rugs, cushions or mattresses.
  • Hazardous waste.

Many household products contain substances that are potentially harmful to the environment. They include medicines, aerosols, bulbs and fluorescent tubes, polishes, adhesives, household cleaners, drain cleaners, solvents, weedkillers and fertilisers.

Some of these items can be brought to a civic amenity centre where they can be recycled or disposed of.

Pharmaceutical drugs (such as painkillers), medical waste (such as syringes or surgical gloves) and containers for pharmaceutical drugs should be returned to your local pharmacy, which can dispose of them properly.

Some local authorities organise mobile collections, where hazardous waste can be left at a central point.

Did you know that the average person in the United States generates around 4.5 pounds of waste every single day?

Recycling not only saves valuable space in our landfills, but it also helps reduce greenhouse gas emissions. And when we recycle, we also have to use fewer resources like water and energy to turn that item into another usable item. Recycling is good for us, the planet, and it can also save you money.

KellyGreenClub

In the United States, the wood used for the manufacture of paper is mainly from small diameter bolts and pulpwood. It is usually measured by the cord or by weight.

Although the fiber used in making paper is overwhelmingly wood fiber, a large percentage of other ingredients is needed.

Paper is made from a mix of types of trees. Some are hardwood, some are softwood. In addition, some are tall, some old, some wide, some young, some thin. Many of the “trees” used to make paper are just chips and sawdust.

One ton of a typical paper requires two cords of wood, but also requires 55,000 gallons of water, 102 pounds of sulfur, 350 pounds of lime, 289 pounds of clay, 1.2 tons of coal, 112 kilowatt hours of power, 20 pounds of dye and pigments and 108 pounds of starch, as well as other ingredients.

Claudia Thompson, in her book Recycled Papers: The Essential Guide (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992), reports on an estimate calculated by Tom Soder, then a graduate student in the Pulp and Paper Technology Program at the University of Maine. He calculated that, based on a mixture of softwoods and hardwoods 40 feet tall and 6-8 inches in diameter, it would take a rough average of 24 trees to produce a ton of printing and writing paper, using the kraft chemical (freesheet) pulping process.

If we assume that the groundwood process is about twice as efficient in using trees, then we can estimate that it takes about 12 trees to make a ton of groundwood and newsprint. (The number will vary somewhat because there often is more fiber in newsprint than in office paper, and there are several different ways of making this type of paper.)

Many of the “trees” used to make paper are just chips and sawdust.

Addicional information

1 ton of uncoated virgin (non-recycled) printing and office paper uses 24 trees

1 ton of 100% virgin (non-recycled) newsprint uses 12 trees

A “pallet” of copier paper (20-lb. sheet weight, or 20#) contains 40 cartons and weighs 1 ton. Therefore,

1 tree makes 16.67 reams of copy paper or 8,333.3 sheets

1 ream (500 sheets) uses 6% of a tree .

1 ton of coated, higher-end virgin magazine paper (used for magazines like National Geographic and many others) uses a little more than 15 trees

1 ton of coated, lower-end virgin magazine paper (used for newsmagazines and most catalogs) uses nearly 8 trees.

Energy

About 80% of people in the world have access to electricity. This figure has increased in the last decade, mainly due to increasing urbanization. But despite the fact that more and more people are getting access to electricity we use very different amounts of it.

Using data from the World Energy Council we can compare how much electricity the average electrified household uses in different countries.

In the US typical household power consumption is about 11,700 kWh each year, in France it is 6,400 kWh, in the UK it is 4,600 kWh and in China around 1,300 kWh. The global average electricity consumption for households with electricity was roughly 3,500 kWh in 2016..

There are numerous things that drive these differences, including wealth, physical house size, appliance standards, electricity prices and access to alternative cooking, heating and cooling fuels.

By taking residential electricity use and dividing it by population we can look at how much electricity the average person uses at home in each country.

Each American uses about 4,500 kWh per year in their home. This is about six times that of the global average per capita, or more than five times the average for those who have electricity access.

The variation between developed countries is also quite stark. While the US and Canada are up around 4,500 kWh per person the UK and Germany are below 2,000 kWh. In Brazil, Mexico and China per person use is just 500 kWh, but growth is very different. In Brazil residential use per person has been stable over the last 20 years, whereas in Mexico it is up 50% and in China it has increased 600%.

Our household electricity use has been 2,000 kWh each of the last few years, which means it is about 700 kWh per person. We benefit from not using electricity for heating or cooling, although our electric oven is a big source of demand.

Recycling paper and save a tree

In the last 40 years, world consumption of paper has grown four hundred percent! Today, the world consumes about 300 million tons of paper every year.

Most of this paper is made from virgin pulp that comes from nearly 4 billion trees. Trees, that would have served as badly needed carbon sinks, had they not been cut down to meet this global demand for paper.

Does recycling paper help?
Yes, definitely.

Paper comes from Trees…

If many more of us started recycling paper, and cut down on our use of paper made from virgin pulp, perhaps the 4 billion trees that are harvested every year to make paper, could be spared and left standing to perform a more important task – that of absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

To produce paper takes twice the energy used to produce a plastic bag. Everything takes energy to produce

Paper comes from Trees…

In today’s electronic age, people are starting to consider going paperless. But there’s still a long way to go before we lose our dependence on this very important human product.

From our newspapers to our paper wrappings, paper is still everywhere and most of them are ending up in our landfills creating a staggering amount of paper waste. There was a time when paper was a rare and precious commodity. Now it fills our planet. It was initially invented as a tool for communication, but today, paper is used more for packaging.

To produce paper takes twice the energy used to produce a plastic bag. Everything takes energy to produce.

Just imagine how long a tree will grow to its full size

In the case of paper, it also involves cutting down trees. Deforestation is one of the main environmental problems we’re facing in these times. 42% of all global wood harvest is used to make paper. Is it really worth it to cut down our life saving trees for this product?

Facts about Paper and Paper Waste

As we speak, more than 199 tons of paper has already been produced.

  • 324 liters of water is used to make 1 kilogram of paper.
  • 10 liters of water is needed to make one piece of A4 paper.
  • 93% of paper comes from trees.
  • 50% of the waste of businesses is composed of paper.
  • Recycling 1 ton of paper saves around 682.5 gallons of oil, 26,500 liters of water and 17 trees.
  • Packaging makes up 1/3 or more of our trash.
  • Paper accounts for 25% of landfill waste and 33% of municipal waste.
  • With all the paper we waste each year, we can build a 12 foot high wall of paper from New York to California!
  • Lessening of paper usage was predicted due to the electronic revolution. It didn’t happen. Demand for paper is expected to double before 2030.
  • Every tree produces enough oxygen for 3 people to breathe.
  • In the case of paper, it also involves cutting down trees.

Environmental Degradation Facts

Deforestation is the primary effect of our mindless use of paper. Conservation groups have made an admirable headway in protecting ecologically rich forests and limiting commercial access. This is great progress for mankind! Just imagine how long a tree will grow to its full size…. We are only just realizing the wasted use of our trees – trees that give off oxygen and protect the planet from further Global Warming.

Does recycling paper help?
Yes, definitely. 

Consequences of Depletion of Natural Resources

Paper pollution is another effect of paper waste and it’s a serious problem. It is estimated that by 2020, paper mills will be producing 500,000,000 tons of paper and paperboard each year! We obviously need this product and a reduction of use is not in the horizon. Pulp and paper is the 3rd largest industrial polluter of air, water and soil. Chlorine-based bleaches are used during production which results in toxic materials being released into our water, air and soil. When paper rots, it emits methane gas which is 25 times more toxic than CO2.

Glassrecycling

As stewards of the environment, we are responsible for preserving and protecting our resources for ourselves and for future generations.

Recycling is really just common sense, and until the “modern era,” it was a common household activity. Before the 1920s, 70% of U.S. cities ran programs to recycle certain materials. During World War II, industry recycled and reused about 25% of the waste stream. Because of concern for the environment, recycling is again on the upswing. The nation’s composting and recycling rate rose from 7.7% of the waste stream in 1960 to 17% in 1990. It’s currently up to around 48%

Glass is 100% recyclable and can be recycled endlessly without loss in quality or purity, is made from readily-available domestic materials, such as sand, soda ash, limestone and “cullet,” the industry term for furnace-ready recycled glass.

The only material used in greater volumes than cullet is sand. These materials are mixed, or “batched,” heated to a temperature of 2600 to 2800 degrees Fahrenheit and molded into the desired shape. Recycled glass can be substituted for up to 95% of raw materials.

Manufacturers benefit from recycling in several ways: Recycled glass reduces emissions and consumption of raw materials, extends the life of plant equipment, such as furnaces, and saves energy.

Recycled glass is always part of the recipe for glass, and the more that is used, the greater the decrease in energy used in the furnace. This makes using recycled glass profitable in the long run, lowering costs for glass container manufacturers—and benefiting the environment.

The recycling one glass bottle saves enough energy to light a 100-watt light bulb for 4 hours or operate a television for 3 hours.

Producing glass from virgin materials requires 30% more energy than producing it from crushed used glass. It takes approximately 1 million years for a glass bottle to break down in a landfill.

Recycling is really just common sense

Most bottles and jars contain at least 25% recycled glass.

Recycling glass saves 25-32% of the energy used to make glass.

Glass containers save 9 gallons of fuel (oil) for every ton of glass recycled.

Unacceptable glass for recycling: ceramic cups, plates and pottery; clay garden pots; laboratory glass; crystal and opaque drinking glasses; mirrors; windshields and window glass; heat-resistant ovenwear; light bulbs; drinking glasses; hazardous glass containers, i.e. acid containers.

Some recycled glass containers are not able to be used in the manufacture of new glass bottles and jars or to make fiberglass. This may be because there is too much contamination or the recycled glass pieces are too small to meet manufacturing specifications. This recovered glass is then used for non-container glass products.

Because of concern for the environment, recycling is again on the upswing

With the involvement and enthusiasm of the people, recycling is back and so are thousands upon thousands of recycled products made from materials that would otherwise be piling up in our nation’s landfills. It doesn’t just make sense. It makes a huge difference to our environment, our quality of life, and our country’s future.

oil

How Does Oil Get into the Ocean?

A report from the National Academy of Sciences estimates 3% of the oil entering the ocean each year comes from oil and gas exploration and extraction activities.

When many of us think of oil spills, we might think of an oil tanker running aground and spilling its contents into the ocean.

In fact, there are actually several ways crude or refined oil may reach the marine environment.

All of those spills add up too.

The National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences reported that roughly 343,200,000 gallons of oil were released into the sea annually, worldwide.

Wherever oil is consumed, there are opportunities for oil spills

Of this amount, the report estimates the origin of that oil as follows:

37% Transportation
12% Extraction
3% Natural seeps
46% Use or consumption of oil

Wherever oil is consumed, such as in manufacturing or when loading a ship with fuel, there are opportunities for oil spills. According to the Washington State Department of Ecology, most spills that occur during ship fueling happen because of inattention, inadequate procedure, procedural error, or poor judgment—in other words, human error.

The typically small-in-size spills that come from consuming oil originate from a variety of activities and actually account for most of the oil spilled by humans into the sea.

According to the International Tanker Owners Pollution Federation, occurrences of large spills from tankers and barges, have decreased dramatically since 1970. This can be attributed at least in part to advances in safety thanks to the Oil Pollution Act of 1990.

Most spills that occur during inadequate procedure, procedural error, or poor judgment—in other words, human error

While oil extraction is not considered a large source of the overall amount of oil released into the sea each year, spills from offshore oil exploration and drilling can be huge when they do happen.

While not technically “oil spills,” oil seeps from the ocean floor naturally release oil from subterranean reservoirs and represent the largest source of oil entering seas both in the United States and around the world.

Even though seeps are not without their own impacts on marine life, natural oil seeps release oil slowly over time, allowing ecosystems to adapt. Impact, then, is not only determined by how much oil is in the environment, but also the type of oil and how quickly it is released.

During an oil spill, the amount of oil released in a short time can overwhelm an ecosystem.

creative ways

 

Tin and aluminum cans are one of the many things that Americans use and dispose of, perhaps more than any other container. Therefore recycling is very important and by recycling you can save precious energy and natural resources.

When recycled, that can produces enough energy to keep a 100-watt bulb burning for almost four hours or run your television for three hours. Even more interesting, because aluminum is a durable and sustainable metal, two-thirds of the aluminum ever produced is still in use today.

But before you send the cans to the recycling center, how about having some fun and figuring out some creative ways to reuse them before tossing them in the recycling bin.

Here are some ideas ways to reuse your aluminum cans.

Cake molds

 CAKE MOLDS

 

Drawer Organizer

DRAWER ORGANIZER

 

Containers for Bags

BAGS

 

Piggy Bank for kids.

PIGGY BANK

“It’s infinite we can do with aluminum cans”

 

Vase

 VASE

 

Desk Organizer

DESKORGANIZER

When recycled, that can produces enough energy to keep a 100-watt bulb burning for almost four hours or run your television for three hours.

Candleholder

CANDLEHOLDER

Bowling Game

BOWLING GAMES

Kitchen Bottles Set (Sugar, Tea, Coffee, Beans, Salt and more.)

KITCHEN BOTTLES

  Recycling is very important , you can save precious energy and natural resources.

Wedding decoration

WEDDING DECORATION

It’s infinite we can do with aluminum cans in the next post will bring more ideas.

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Benefits of Outsourced Professional Cleaning Services

A clean environment is not only essential for appearances, but for the health and hygiene of building occupants, Professional janitorial services will ensure your building is always hygienic and attractive.  Although there are many benefits to hiring a professional cleaning company, we’ve compiled allmost for your consideration.

No hassle

This is the “no hassle” benefit. When you hire an external cleaning company, you won’t have to worry about the staff. They are not your responsibility, and therefore you are relieved from the burden of hiring, supervising, managing, and assessing them.

“When you hire an external cleaning company, you won’t have to worry about the staff.”

With external cleaners, the only thing you need to do is collaborate with the company to devise the most appropriate cleaning plan for your building.

Flexible and Tailored to You

Enlisting the services of an outsourced cleaning company is convenient. Most professional cleaning companies will work with you to create the best cleaning program based on your needs.

Commercial cleaning companies will be able to help you decide the ideal schedule for the types of surfaces and flooring in your building, taking into account pedestrian traffic, material, time of year, etc.

Furthermore, the cleaners will work around your schedule. For example, it is easy to have cleaners come in at night so as not to disturb your employees.

“Most professional cleaning companies will work with you to create the best cleaning program based on your needs”

Each facility is different, and will therefore require a tailored cleaning program to ensure the best results.

You will be able to customize to your liking, whether you need one-time, daily, weekly, or monthly cleaning of specific areas. Figuring out the right cleaning frequency will save both time and money on unnecessary tasks.

Cleanliness Standards

An outsourced cleaning company can mean having a cleaner facility, Cleaning companies’ first and foremost concern is cleanliness. It is their reason for existing.

Outsourced janitorial companies spend time and money to ensure their cleaning standards, methods, equipment, and products are up-to-date.

“Cleaning companies’ first and foremost concern is cleanliness. It is their reason for existing”

 

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Summer_Cleaning_TipsSummertime

and the living is easy…

There’s nothing complicated or time-consuming about keeping a clean, inviting and well-run home.

What you need is a strategy.

Take a few minutes now for planning, and you’ll save hours in the months ahead.

These  summer cleaning tips can help you keep your home looking crisp and clean with minimal effort during the sunny days ahead.

These cleaning tips that will change your summer

 

Plan for a clutter-free summer

Set a summer goal of having a clutter free home. Having lots of stuff around leaves plenty of places for dust and allergens to collect. If you haven’t already, do a bit of decluttering now to get the ball rolling.

Get the kids to help with the house-wide clutter-busting. Encourage kids as young as preschoolers (ages 3-4) to put dirty clothes in the hamper and put away playthings after use.

By making a clean, clutter-free home the precursor to a fun activity, such as a day at the beach or lake, and by helping your child master the cleaning tasks, you can make housecleaning an enjoyable, confidence-building activity. And thanks to summer, there’s finally time to get almost everything done.

 

Think small for big summer cleaning impact.

Tackle small jobs before they turn into big ones. Sweep up crumbs before they get ground into kitchen or patio floors.

Make it a group effort. To get all the cleaning done in the allotted time, have the troops pitch in. Give each member of your family a task. If the results aren’t perfect, you’re probably the only one who will notice.

Lighten up on summer cleaning by stopping dirt at the door.

 

“Think small for big summer cleaning impact”

 

Stop dirt and sand at the door by having people remove their shoes before entering. If that sounds a bit drastic, invest in a good door mat that’s gentle on feet.

Even your little stomper can wipe shoes on entryway rugs or front door mats to protect floors and carpets, and to catch dirt, dust, pollen brought in from outside.

Inside, place washable rugs in high-tragic areas to prevent sand and dirt from being tracked from room to room.

Confine eating to the kitchen or dining room so you won’t be chasing crumbs throughout the house.

 

Bathroom basics

Here is where cleaning challenges can get tough. With so many different surfaces – chrome, brass, glass, porcelain and fiberglass – it’s difficult to know where to begin or what to use.

But you don’t need to buy buckets full of special cleaners to keep everything looking good this summer.

Four basic products can get the job done: an all-purpose cleaner;

  • a tub, tile and sink cleaner;
  • a toilet-bowl cleaner; and
  • a glass cleaner.

(The best and least expensive glass cleaner, by the way, is a homemade mix of 1/4 cup of vinegar in 3 3/4 cups of warm water.)

You’ll also need tools:

  • a long-handled toilet brush
  • a sponge (preferably a scrubber sponge),
  • a squeegee,
  • a dust cloth and paper towels.

Save time by spraying cleaners on areas that need extra soaking time, such as the toilet, tub and shower, while you tackle other surfaces.

Now Follow this procedure and you’ll have a summer-fresh bathroom in minutes, rather than hours:

Sanitize the bowl:  Squirt toilet bowl cleaner around the inside of the bowl and under the rim. With a long-handled toilet brush, swish the cleaner around the bowl, under the rim and as far into the trap as possible.

Let the solution stand while you clean the seat, lid and outside of the bowl with an all-purpose cleaner and a sponge, cloth or paper towels.

Paper towels are best: No rinsing is needed, and there’s no chance of spreading germs, since you’ll toss out the paper towels immediately after use.

Clear the deck: Clear the countertop of personal items, and spray the surface with all purpose cleaner. Wipe clean with a sponge or paper towels and replace your toiletries.

Shine on:  Spray glass cleaner on a cloth and clean the mirror. Squeegee dry. Use glass cleaner to make faucets sparkle, too.

Dust and smudge duty:  Clear shelves and dust. Spot-clean wall smudges with an all-purpose cleaner and sponge. Give full attention to areas around light switches and doorknobs – a favorite gathering place for germs and bacteria.

Scrub duty: Use a scrubber sponge to loosen and remove soap scum and buildup on the tub or shower. Rinse clean.

To make this task easier in the future, keep a squeegee in the shower or a sponge in the tub.

Wipe down the shower door and walls or sides of the tub after each use to help prevent soap-scum buildup. To keep mildew in check, open the shower door or curtain after use to let it air-dry. If mildew already has a toehold, scrub the surface with 3/4 cup bleach in 1 gallon water; rinse clean.

Now for the floor. Vacuum or sweep, then mop.

Garbage detail.  Empty the trash can and take the bag with you.

 

Quick kitchen cleanup

Kitchens are a potluck of dirt, grease and germs.

To make this room a sunny haven this season, you’ll need:

  •  an all-purpose cleaner,
  •  a glass cleaner (or the vinegar and water mix),
  •  dish-washing detergent, a clean dry cloth,
  • a scrubber sponge and a scourer (the ball-shape, woven-plastic kind).

Put everything in its place, from the dishes languishing in the sink to the kids’ drawings on the kitchen table.

Don’t waste precious summer moments scrubbing dried-on foods or baked-on spills on counters and the stove top. Give them a generous spritz of all-purpose cleaner and allow the cleaner to penetrate the grime while you move on.

Fill the sink with hot, soapy water and soak your stove burner rings and vent-hood filter for at least 15 or 20 minutes to soften baked-on food and spills and splatters.

Remove the oven racks. Scrape off any burned-on stains with a dull knife held at a 30-degree angle. Use an oven cleaner for manually cleaned ovens. If you have a self-cleaning oven, simply turn it on and let the appliance clean itself.

“Don’t use an oven cleaner in a self-cleaning or a continuous-cleaning oven, it may damage the surface”

To eliminate the need for frequent deep cleanings for the rest of the summer, sponge away oven spills before they dry or are burned to a crisp.

Surface duty. Work your way around the kitchen, cleaning all the surfaces.

First, wipe up the spots you sprayed earlier, then use an all-purpose cleaner for a general wiping of countertops, the oven exterior, cabinets, the dishwasher and refrigerator.

Finally, spray a disinfectant cleaner on the countertops and refrigerator handle and let it sit for at least 10 minutes.

Retrieve the vent-hood filter and stove-burner rings that have been soaking in the sink; sponge them clean of any lingering grime; rinse, dry and put back in place.

“Put everything in its place, from the dishes languishing in the sink to the kids’ drawings on the kitchen table.”

Clean the sink and faucet with a sponge and dishwashing liquid or all-purpose cleaner.

 

Greeting and meeting areas

Your front door, entryway and patio should be bright spots for entertaining. Fortunately, these areas require little effort.

Clear debris and clutter from all walkways and stairs. Sweep the front walkway and porch; prune any yellowed leaves on porch plants.

For safety’s sake, light the walkway and porch well. On the patio, more indirect lighting may be preferable.

 

Remember: safety first!

Practice prevention this summer when it comes to housecleaning and cleaning products. Show kids the safe way to use cleaning products when they go about their chores. Store your cleaning supplies safely out of reach of curious little hands.

 

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five_tips_for_recycling

A bathroom recycling bin definitely encourages the practice.

Most of us are used to recycling at home, but in the bathroom? Not so much. However, your bathroom is home to a number of recyclable products.

The more you know about what’s recyclable, the easier it is to incorporate it into your daily routine.

  • Make your own recycling bin.

Moms believe that showing their kids how to place recyclable products in the appropriate bin is a teachable moment.

  • Get a bathroom recycling bin.

A majority of moms report they would be more likely to recycle bathroom products if they had a recycling bin in the room.

With a handy bin nearby, you’ll never have to think twice about recycling in the bathroom.

  • Get crafty.

For items that can’t be recycled, instead of tossing them, why not remake them into something special? how to creating luminaries out of moisturizer jars, vases out of makeup remover bottles.

  • Create friendly reminders.

Try leaving a framed note on your bathroom counter, to help remind you and your family and guests to recycle every day.

  • Involve your kids.

You can start by creating a recycling campaign that rewards kids with fun, when they remember to recycle in the bathroom.

By following these five simple steps, you’ll be well on your way to making bathroom recycling part of your family’s daily routine.